英语中反意疑问句概念集

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英语中反意疑问句概念集
英语中反意疑问句概念

英语中反意疑问句概念集
定义:在陈述句之后附加上一个简短问句,对陈述句所叙述的事实提出相反的疑问,这种疑问句叫做反意疑问句.
结构:如陈述部分为肯定式,疑问部分用否定式.反之,如陈述部分否定式,疑问部分用肯定式.疑问部分重复陈述句的主语(必须用代词)和be , have,助动词或情态动词.如陈述句中没有 be, have,助动词或情态动词,则须另加do.如:She has gone to town, hasn't she? 她进城了,对吗?
You like it, don't you? 你喜欢它,不是吗?
注意事项:
1.在朗读时,反意疑问句的前部分用降调,后部分,在表疑问时用升调,在表强调时用降调.如:
He's an engneer, isn't he?↑ 他是工程师,是不是?
It's a fine day today, isn't it?↓ 今天天气很好,对吧?
2.对反意疑问句的回答,肯定或否定要前后保持一致,即前面用“ yes ”,后面必须是肯定;前面用“no ”,后面必须是否定.
3.附加问句如果是否定式,一般应用缩略形式,如:
We need to practise speaking English more often, don't we? 我们需要多练习说英语,是不是?
He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? 他应当知道该怎么做,对不对?
4.在回答前否定(陈述句)+后肯定(简略问句)的反意疑问句时,答语中“yes ”和“no”的翻译恰好与汉语相反,如: He isn't a pianist, is he? 他不是钢琴家,是吗?
Yes , he is . (No, he isn't.) 不,他是钢琴家.(对,他不是钢琴家.)
5.牢记反意疑问句及答语的肯定,否定关系的一般规则(“+”表示肯定,“—”表示否定):
问句中:“+,—”或“—,+”. 答句中:“+,+”或“—,—”.
问中:He doesn't want to buy it, does he? 他不想买它,对吗?
答中:A:Yes, he does. 不,他想买. B: No, he doesn't. 对,他不想买.
简单陈述的附加句
(一)特殊情况 (1)陈述部分是I am 时,疑问部分常用“aren't I?”代替更正式的“am I not? ”. 如: I'm late, aren't I? 我迟到了,是吗?
(2)如陈述部分是“there be”结构时,疑问部分只需对换there be 的位置即可.如:
There's something wrong with your watch, isn't there? 你的手表有毛病,对吗?
(3)陈述部分是形式主语it 时,疑问部分的主语也用it .如:
It took more than 100,000 men twenty years to build the Great Pyramid, didn't it?
建成这座大金字塔,十万人费了二十年时间,对吗?
(4)陈述部分是had better 固定搭配时,疑问部分应是hadn't.如:
We'd better play games now, hadn't we? 我们最好现在做游戏,行吗?

(二)两种形式
1)当情态动词用时,疑问部分用 didn't.如:
They used to be good friends, didn't they? 他们过去一向是好朋友,是吗?
2)当不及物动词用时,疑问部分要用didn't .如:
Grandmother used to get up early, didn't she? 奶奶过去时常早起,对吗?
There used to be a station over there, didn't there? 过去那儿有个火车站,对吗?
(2)陈述部分如带有have to, has to, had to 时:
1)惯常行为:用do, does, did,构成 have to, has to, had to 的疑问部分.如:
We have to work from 8:00 a.m. to 5:30p.m, don't we? 我们得从上午8:00工作到下午5:30,是不是?
2)在特定场合:用have, has, had,构成have to, has to, had to 的疑问部分.如:
I have to work this afternoon, haven't I? 我今天下午得去工作,是不是?
(3)need, dare 的用法:
1)当实义动词用,疑问部分要用do 的某一形式.如:
He dared to ask the teacher many questions, didn't he? 他敢向老师提许多问题,对吗?
2)当情态动词用,只重复它.如:
You needn't do that when your son is here, need you? 你儿子在这里时,你不必做那事,是不是?
(三)其他形式
(1)如陈述部分的主语是不定代词everyone, someone, no one等词,疑问部分的主语常用they ,有时也可用he.如:
Somebody borrowed my bike yesterday, didn't they? 昨天有人借了我的自行车,对吗?
(2)如陈述部分的主语为不定代词something, everything 等及指示代词this, that 时,疑问部分的主语用it .如:
Nothing could make him give in, could it? 什么也不会使它屈服,是吗?
(3)如陈述部分有 no, nobody, few, seldom, nor, nither…nor, too…to等表示否定意味的词时,疑问部分要用肯定式.如 :
He is neither a teacher nor a worker, is he? 他既不是老师,也不是工人,对吗?
No one here can dance, can they? 这里没有人会跳舞,对吗?
(4)当陈述部分含有由 un, in , im, il, ir 等否定前缀构成的派生词时,虽意思是“不”,但疑问部分仍要用否定式.如:
She dislike it, doesn't she? 她不喜欢它,是吧?
(5)当 neither…nor, both…and 连接陈述部分的两个主语时,疑问部分的主语常用复数代词.如:
Both you and I are not wriong, are we? 你和我都不错,是吗?

祈使句的附加句
(一)祈使句是肯定式,表示“请求”,疑问部分要用will you?;若表示“劝导”“邀请”时,疑问部分要用won't you ;也可用 can't you ,含有责备或不耐烦之意.如: Shut up, can't you? 闭嘴,行不行?
Come here at once, will you? 立刻到这里来,好吗? Stop talking, won't you? 别说话,好吗?
(二)如祈使句是否定式时,疑问部分只能用 “will you?”.如:
Don't look out of the window, will you? 别向窗外看,行吗?
(三)以Let me 的祈使句,疑问部分可用 “will you ?”或“may I? ”如:
Let me have another try, will you? 让我再试一次,行吗? Let me do the job, may I? .可以吗? (四)以Let us (不包括对方在内)的祈使句,疑问部分用“will you? ” 如:
Let us go shopping, will you? 让我们去买东西,行吗?
(五)以 Let's (包括对方在内)的祈使句,其疑问部分用“shall we? ”.如:
Let's go out for a drive, shall we? 咱们出去兜风吧,好吗?
复合句的附加句
A.当陈述句是主从复合句时:
(一)从句是that 引起的宾语从句( that 在常省略),附加疑问应对陈述部分的主句提出.如:
He said nothing except that he was all right, didn't he? 他除了说他很好之外,其他什么也没讲,对吗?
(二)当陈述部分主句的主、谓是 I (We) think(believe, imagine, expect, feel 等)加 that 引导的宾语从句时,疑问部分的主语(代词)和动词要与从句的一致.如:
I think there is something wrong with the washer, isn't there? 我想洗衣机出了毛病,对不对?
We don't suppose he cares, does he? 我想他不在乎的,对吗?
(注:think, believe, imagine 等表示揣测,信念,愿望之类心理活动的动词+that 宾语从句时,务必注意这些动词具有否定转移的现象.)
(三)当陈述部分是It (This, That或其他表示时间的名词+ be+the+first time(month 等)+that 从句(that 可省)时,疑问部分与主句的主语和谓语保持一致 .如:This is the third time he has left home, isn't it? Tomorrow will be the second time that I have had to have my TV set repaired again, won't it?
B.复杂情况
(一)当陈述部分的主语是从句、不定式(短语)、动名词等时,疑问部分的主语一律用it .如:
Whether they will come or not doesn't matter too much, does it?(主语从句作陈述句的主语)
Packing the suitcase has taken up a whole moring, hasn't it?(动名词短语作陈述句的主语)
To learn aforeign languag well in such a short time isn't easy, is it?(不定式短语作陈述句的主语)
(二)若陈述句为并列句时,疑问部分的主语通常与临近分句的主谓一致.如:
We must redouble our efforts, or we'll not be able to catch up with the others, will we?
我们必须加倍努力,否则我们就赶不上别人,对吗?

(三)如陈述部分含情态动词must时:
(1)表示“应该”,其疑问部分用mustn't(不应该),如:
You must work hard next term, mustn't you ? 下学期你应该努力学习,对吗?
(2)表示“必须”,其疑问部分用needn't(不必),如:
We must go at once, needn't we? 我们必须立刻走,是吗?
(3)表示推测,其疑问部分必须与must 后面的主要动词相呼应.如:
1)对现在动作或存在的情况的推测:
You must know the answer to the exercise, don't you? 你一定知道这项练习的答案,是不是?
That must be your bed, isn't it? 那一定是你的床,是吗?
2)对过去发生的动作或存在的情况的推测:
①表示肯定
You must have left your bag in the theatre, haven't you? 你一定是把包落在剧场了,是不是? Aunt Liu must have got to the U.S.A. yesterday, didn't she? 刘大婶昨天准是到了美国了,对不?
②表示否定表示推测时,否定式通常不是must not ,而是can't (cannot). 如:
He can't have been to your home; he doesn't know your address, does he?
他不可能去过你家;他不知道你的地址,是不是?
(4)陈述部分含情态动词mustn't,表示禁止时,问部分就可以用must或may,如:
We mustn't be late, must we?(may we?) 我们不可以迟到,是吗?
英英与美英的差异反意疑问句
(一)如陈述句have 作“有”解时, 疑问部分在美国英语中用 do的某一形式;在英国英语中用have 的适当形式,如:
She has money with her, doesn't she? (美英)她身边有钱,对吗?
He hasn't any friends in London, has he? (英英)他在伦敦没有什么朋友,对吗?
(二)陈述部分用不定代词one 作主语时,疑问部分在美国英语中用 he ,在英国英语中仍用one,如:
One should love his country, shouldn't he? (美英)任何人都应该爱国,对吧?
(三)陈述部分带有情态动词ought to 时,附加疑问部分在美国英语中用should ;在英国英语中仍用 ought,如:
The boy ought to be praised, shouldn't he? (美英)这男孩应该受到表扬,是不是?
We ought to read the book, oughtn't we? (英英)我们应当读这本书,对吗?

反义疑问句(The Disjunctive Question) 即附加疑问句。它表示提问人的看法,没有把握,需要对方证实。 反义疑问句由两部分组成:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一部分是一个简短的疑问句,两部分的人称时态应保持一致。 1.陈述部分肯定式+疑问部分否定式 可记为 前肯后否 2.陈述部分否定式+疑问部分肯定式 可记为 前否后肯 They work hard, don’t ...

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反义疑问句(The Disjunctive Question) 即附加疑问句。它表示提问人的看法,没有把握,需要对方证实。 反义疑问句由两部分组成:前一部分是一个陈述句,后一部分是一个简短的疑问句,两部分的人称时态应保持一致。 1.陈述部分肯定式+疑问部分否定式 可记为 前肯后否 2.陈述部分否定式+疑问部分肯定式 可记为 前否后肯 They work hard, don’t they? She was ill yesterday, wasn’t she? You didn’t go, did you? He can’t ride a bike, can he? He is a student,isn't he?
[编辑本段]主语
一般词语
附加疑问句中主语 用和主语一致的主语,用主格。
不定代词
当陈述部分的主语是 ( 1 )everyone,no one, nobody 等时,后面的疑问句应表示为: I am a student, aren’it ?(或 ain’it ) Everyone is in the classroom, aren’t they? (基本不用单数,但也可用he) Nobody will go, will they? (2)everything,anything,nothing,something时,附加疑问句中主语一般用 it 不用 they (3)this,that,或those,these时,附加疑问句中主语用it和they.
[编辑本段]特殊句型
否定意义的词
否定意义的词 (1)当陈述部分有never,seldom, hardly,few,little,barely, scarcely, nothing 等否定意义的词时,后面的反意疑问句则为肯定形式: There are few apples in the basket, are there? He can hardly swim, can he? They seldom come late, do they? (2)当陈述部分含有否定意思的词是unhappy,dislike,unfriendly等含有否定词缀的派生词,也就是有un-前缀、-less后缀等含有词缀而意思否定的词,当做肯定句处理,疑问部分要用否定形式。如: He looks unhappy,doesn't he?他看上去不高兴,不是吗? The girl dislikes history,doesn't she?这女孩不喜欢历史,不是吗?
表示主语主观意愿的词
含有think, believe, suppose, imagine, expect等动词后接宾语从句构成的主从复合句在构成反意疑问句时,视情况不同有两种不同的构成方式。 (1.)当主句的主语为第一人称时,其后的简短问句应与从句相一致。例如: I expect our English teacher will be back this weekend, won't she/he? We suppose you have finished the project, haven't you? 值得注意的是,当这些动词后接的宾语从句的否定转移到主句时,其仍属否定句,故其后的简短问句应用肯定式,而非否定式。例如: I don't believe that he can translate this book, can he? We don't imagine the twins have arrived, have they? 此类句子的回答同"前否后肯"型反意疑问句一样,如上述后一个句子,若双胞胎已经到了,则回答为"Yes, they have.";若尚未到达,使用"No, they haven't."。 (2).当主句的主语为第二、三人称时,其后的简短问句则应与主句相一致(此时,否定只看主句,与从句无关...)。例如: Your sister supposes she needs no help, doesn't she? You thought they could have completed the project, didn't you? They don't believe she's an engineer, do they? She doesn't expect that we are coming so soon, does she? (3)但如果主句的时态是过去时等等,疑问句应和主句的人称时态保持一致。
had better或have
陈述部分有had better,或其中的have表示完成时态时,疑问句应用hadn’t等开头: You’d better get up early, hadn’t you? 其他情况句中有have时疑问句应用don't等开头 如have表示“有”的时候,有两种形式: -He has two sisters,hasn't he? -He doesn't have any sisters, does he?
祈使句
当陈述部分是祈使句时,疑问句要根据语气来表达 当开头是Let‘s时,一定要用shall we。其余都用will you(包括 Let us)不论肯定否定 Let’s go out for a walk, shall we? Let us go out for a walk, will you? Let me help you,may I? Turn on the radio, will you?
There be句型
There be 句型中,反义疑问部分必须为 be 动词 + there There are some apples in the basket, aren't there? There isn't any milk left, is there?
must
.当陈述部分有情态动词must,问句有4种情况: (1)mustn't表示“禁止,不可,必须”时,附加问句通常要用must. You mustn't stop your car here,must you? 你不能把车停在这地方,知道吗? (2)must表示“有必要”时,附加问句通常要用needn't. They must finish the work today,needn't they? 他们今天要完成这项工作,是吗? (3)当must用来表示对现在的情况进行推测时,问句通常要根据must后面的动词采用相应的形式。 He must be good at English,isn't he? 他英语一定学得很好,是吗? (4)当must+have done表示对过去的情况进行推测(一般句中有明确的过去时间状语),问句要根据陈述部分谓语的情况用“didn't+主语”或“wasn't/weren't+主语”;如果强调动作的完成(一般没有明确的过去时间状语),问句要用“haven't/hasn't+主语”。 She must have read the novel last week,didn't she? 她上星期一定读了这本小说,是吗? You must have told her about it,haven't you? 你一定把这事告诉她了,是吗?
[编辑本段]回答
反意疑问句的回答用yes, no, 但是,回答意思相反,当陈述部分是否定形式时,回答要按事实。如: They don’t work hard, do they? 他们不太努力工作,是吗? Yes, they do. 不,他们工作努力。/No, they don’t. 对, 他们工作不努力
肯定反意疑问句的回答
当陈述部分为否定式,反意疑问句为肯定式时,其回答往往与汉语不一致,需特别引起注意: "It isn’t cheap, is it?" "Yes, it is." “它不便宜吧?”“不,很便宜。” "He doesn’t love her, does he?" "No, he doesn’t."“他不爱她,是吗?”“是的,他不爱她。” 此时,"Yes"即不,对前面"It isn't cheap."的否定。
否定反意疑问句的回答
当陈述部分为肯定式,反意疑问句为否定式时,其回答一般不会造成困难,一般只需照情况回答即可: "It’s new, isn’t it?" "Yes, it is." “是新的,对吗?”“对,是新的。” "He wants to go, doesn’t he?" "No, he doesn’t." “他想去,对吗?”“不,他不想去。” 此时,"No"即是,对前面"It's new."的肯定。
回答反意疑问句的原则
回答反意疑问句通常应根据实际情况来确定,如有人问你You are asleep, aren’t you? 你应回答No, I’m not. 因为既然你能回答,肯定你还没有asleep。但如果别人问你 You aren’t asleep, are you?(你还没有睡着,对吗),你也只能回答No, I’m not.(是的,还没有睡着),而不能回答为Yes, I’m not. 也不能回答成 Yes, I am. “It is a beautiful flower,isn't it?” “It isn't a beautiful flower,is it?” 上述两句句子的回答肯定均为“Yes,it is."否定为“No,it isn't." 由上述例子可知,反义疑问句回答与句子本身所包含的中文肯定与否的含义并无太大关联,只需注意事实,肯定即用yes,否定用no,无需考虑句子原本是前否后肯或是前肯后否。
[编辑本段]重点归纳
快速记忆表 陈述部分的谓语 疑问部分 I aren't I Wish may +主语 no,nothing,nobody,never, few, seldom, hardly, 肯定含义 rarely, little等否定 含义的词 ought to(肯定的) shouldn't/ oughtn't +主语 have to+v.(had to+v.) don't +主语(didn't +主语) used to didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语 had better + v. hadn't you would rather + v. wouldn't +主语 you'd like to + v. wouldn't +主语 must 根据实际情况而定 感叹句中 be +主语 Neither…nor, either…or 连接的根 据其实际逻辑意义而定 并列主语 指示代词或不定代词 everything,that, 主语用it nothing,this 并列复合句 谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定 定语从句,宾语从句的 主从复合句 根据主句的谓语而定 think,believe,expect, suppose,imagine等引导 与宾语从句相对应的从句 everybody,anyone, somebody,nobody,no one 复数they, 单数he 情态动词dare或need need (dare ) +主语 dare, need 为实义动词 do +主语 省去主语的祈使句 will you? Let's 开头的祈使句 Shall we? Let us 开头的祈使句 Will you? there be 相应的谓语动词+there(省略主语代词) 否定前缀不能视为否定词 仍用否定形式 must表"推测" 根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句

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